librpmem(3) - NVML man page

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
MOST COMMONLY USED FUNCTIONS
LANES
TARGET NODE ADDRESS FORMAT
REMOTE POOL ATTRIBUTES
SSH
LIBRARY API VERSIONING
DEBUGGING AND ERROR HANDLING
ENVIRONMENT
EXAMPLE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
SEE ALSO

NAME

librpmem – remote persistent memory support library

SYNOPSIS

#include <librpmem.h>
cc ... -lrpmem
Most commonly used functions:
RPMEMpool *rpmem_create(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name,
	void *pool_addr, size_t pool_size, unsigned *nlanes,
	const struct rpmem_pool_attr *create_attr);
RPMEMpool *rpmem_open(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name,
	void *pool_addr, size_t pool_size, unsigned *nlanes,
	struct rpmem_pool_attr *open_attr);
int rpmem_set_attr(RPMEMpool *rpp, const struct rpmem_pool_attr *attr);
int rpmem_close(RPMEMpool *rpp);

int rpmem_persist(RPMEMpool *rpp, size_t offset, size_t length, unsigned lane);
int rpmem_read(RPMEMpool *rpp, void *buff, size_t offset, size_t length);
int rpmem_remove(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name, int flags);
Library API versioning:
const char *rpmem_check_version(
	unsigned major_required,
	unsigned minor_required);
Error handling:
const char *rpmem_errormsg(void);

DESCRIPTION

librpmem provides low-level support for remote access to persistent memory (pmem) utilizing RDMA-capable RNICs. The library can be used to replicate remotely a memory region over RDMA protocol. It utilizes appropriate persistency mechanism based on remote node’s platform capabilities. The librpmem utilizes the ssh client to authenticate a user on remote node and for encryption of connection’s out-of-band configuration data. See SSH section for details.

This library is for applications that use remote persistent memory directly, without the help of any library-supplied transactions or memory allocation. Higher-level libraries that build on libpmem are available and are recommended for most applications, see:

MOST COMMONLY USED FUNCTIONS

RPMEMpool *rpmem_create(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name,
	void *pool_addr, size_t pool_size, unsigned *nlanes,
	const struct rpmem_pool_attr *create_attr);

The rpmem_create() function creates a remote pool on a given target node. The pool_set_name is a relative path in the root config directory on the target node that uniquely identifies the pool set file on remote node to be used when mapping the remote pool. The pool_addr is a pointer to the associated local memory pool of a given size specified by the pool_size argument. Both pool_addr and pool_size must be aligned to system’s page size (see sysconf(3)). The size of the remote pool must be at least pool_size. See REMOTE POOL SIZE section for details. The nlanes points to the maximum number of lanes which the caller requests to use. Upon successfully opening of the remote pool, the nlanes contains the maximum number of lanes supported by both local and remote nodes’ hardware. See LANES section for details. The create_attr structure contains the attributes used for creating the remote pool. If create_attr is NULL, a zeroed structure with attributes will be used to create the pool. The attributes are stored in pool’s meta-data and can be read when opening the remote pool using rpmem_open() function call. Upon success the rpmem_create() returns an opaque handle to the remote pool which shall be used in subsequent API calls. If any error prevents the librpmem from creating the remote pool, the rpmem_create() returns NULL and sets errno appropriately.

RPMEMpool *rpmem_open(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name,
	void *pool_addr, size_t pool_size, unsigned *nlanes,
	struct rpmem_pool_attr *open_attr);

The rpmem_open() function opens an existing remote pool on a given target node. The pool_set_name is a relative path in the root config directory on the target node that uniquely identifies the pool set file on remote node to be used when mapping the remote pool. The pool_addr is a pointer to the associated local memory pool of a given size specified by the pool_size argument. Both pool_addr and pool_size must be aligned to system’s page size (see sysconf(3)). The size of the remote pool must be at least pool_size. See REMOTE POOL SIZE section for details. The nlanes points to the maximum number of lanes which the caller requests to use. Upon successfully opening of the remote pool, the nlanes contains the maximum number of lanes supported by both local and remote nodes’ hardware. See LANES section for details. If the open_attr argument is not NULL the remote pool attributes are returned by the provided structure. Upon success the rpmem_open() returns an opaque handle to the remote pool which shall be used in subsequent API calls. If any error prevents the librpmem from opening the remote pool, the rpmem_open() returns NULL and sets errno appropriately.

int rpmem_set_attr(RPMEMpool *rpp, const struct rpmem_pool_attr *attr);

The rpmem_set_attr() function overwrites pool’s attributes. The attr structure contains the attributes used for overwriting the remote pool attributes that were passed to rpmem_create() at pool’s creation. If attr is NULL, a zeroed structure with attributes will be used. New attributes are stored in pool’s meta-data.

int rpmem_close(RPMEMpool *rpp);

The rpmem_close() function closes a remote pool indicated by rpp. All resources are released on both local and remote side. The pool itself lives on the remote node and may be re-opened at a later time using rpmem_open() function as described above. If any error occurred when closing remote pool, non-zero value is returned and errno value is set.

int rpmem_persist(RPMEMpool *rpp, size_t offset, size_t length, unsigned lane);

The rpmem_persist() function copies data of given length at given offset from the associated local memory pool and makes sure the data is persistent on the remote node before the function returns. The remote node is identified by the rpp handle which must be returned from either rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() functions. The offset is relative to the pool_addr specified in the rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() function calls. The offset and length combined must not exceed the pool_size passed to the rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() functions. The rpmem_persist() operation is performed using given lane number. The lane must be less than the value returned by rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() through the nlanes argument (so it can take a value from 0 to nlanes - 1). If the entire memory area was made persistent on remote node the rpmem_persist() returns 0, otherwise it returns non-zero value and sets errno appropriately.

int rpmem_read(RPMEMpool *rpp, void *buff, size_t offset, size_t length);

The rpmem_read() function reads length bytes of data from remote pool at offset and copies it to the buffer buff. The function returns 0 if the data was read entirely, otherwise non-zero value is returned and errno set appropriately. The rpp must point to a remote pool opened or created previously by rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() functions respectively.

int rpmem_remove(const char *target, const char *pool_set_name, int flags);

The rpmem_remove() function removes a remote pool on a given target node. The pool_set_name is a relative path in the root config directory on the target node that uniquely identifies the pool set file on remote node. By default only the pool part files are removed and pool set file is left untouched. If the pool is not consistent the rpmem_remove() function fails, unless otherwise specified. The flags argument determines the behavior of rpmem_remove() function. It is either 0 or the bitwise OR of one or more of the following flags:

LANES

The term lane means an isolated path of execution. Due to a limited resources provided by underlying hardware utilized by both local and remote nodes the maximum number of parallel rpmem_persist() operations is limited by the maximum number of lanes returned from either the rpmem_open() or rpmem_create() function calls. The caller passes the maximum number of lanes one would like to utilize. If the pool has been successfully created or opened, the lanes value is updated to the minimum of: the number of lanes requested by the caller and the maximum number of lanes supported by underlying hardware. The application is obligated to use at most the returned number of lanes in parallel. The rpmem_persist() does not provide any locking mechanism thus the serialization of the calls shall be performed by the application if required.

TARGET NODE ADDRESS FORMAT

[<user>@]<hostname>[:<port>]

The target node address is described by the hostname which the client connects to, with an optional user name. The user must be authorized to authenticate to the remote machine without querying for password/passphrase. The optional port number is used to establish the SSH connection. The default port number is 22.

REMOTE POOL ATTRIBUTES

The rpmem_pool_attr structure describes a remote pool and is stored in remote pool’s metadata. This structure must be passed to the rpmem_create() function by caller when creating a pool on remote node. When opening the pool using rpmem_open() function the appropriate fields are read from pool’s metadata and returned back to the caller.

#define RPMEM_POOL_HDR_SIG_LEN    8
#define RPMEM_POOL_HDR_UUID_LEN   16
#define RPMEM_POOL_USER_FLAGS_LEN 16

struct rpmem_pool_attr {
	char signature[RPMEM_POOL_HDR_SIG_LEN];
	uint32_t major;
	uint32_t compat_features;
	uint32_t incompat_features;
	uint32_t ro_compat_features;
	unsigned char poolset_uuid[RPMEM_POOL_HDR_UUID_LEN];
	unsigned char uuid[RPMEM_POOL_HDR_UUID_LEN];
	unsigned char next_uuid[RPMEM_POOL_HDR_UUID_LEN];
	unsigned char prev_uuid[RPMEM_POOL_HDR_UUID_LEN];
	unsigned char user_flags[RPMEM_POOL_USER_FLAGS_LEN];
};

The signature field is an 8-byte field which describes the pool’s on-media format.

The major field is a major version number of the pool’s on-media format.

The compat_features field is a mask describing compatibility of pool’s on-media format optional features.

The incompat_features field is a mask describing compatibility of pool’s on-media format required features.

The ro_compat_features field is a mask describing compatibility of pool’s on-media format features. If these features are not available, the pool shall be opened in read-only mode.

The poolset_uuid field is an UUID of the pool which the remote pool is associated with.

The uuid field is an UUID of a first part of the remote pool. This field can be used to connect the remote pool with other pools in a list.

The next_uuid and prev_uuid fields are UUIDs of next and previous replicas respectively. These fields can be used to connect the remote pool with other pools in a list.

The user_flags field is a 16-byte user-defined flags.

SSH

The librpmem utilizes ssh(1) client to login and execute the rpmemd(1) process on remote node. By default the ssh process is executed with -4 option which forces using IPv4 addressing. The SSH command executed by librpmem can be overwritten by RPMEM_SSH environment variable. The command executed by the ssh can be overwritten by RPMEM_CMD variable. See ENVIRONMENT section for details. See FORK section for more details.

FORK

The ssh process is executed by rpmem_open() and rpmem_create() after forking a child process using fork(2). The application must take into account this fact when using wait(2) and waitpid(2) functions which may return a PID of the ssh process executed by librpmem.

The librpmem library calls the ibv_fork_init(3) function in library’s constructor in order to enable fork(2) support in libibverbs. If an application uses the libibverbs before loading the librpmem library it must call the ibv_fork_inif(3) function before allocating any resources using libibverbs, otherwise rpmem_open and rpmem_create functions will return an error.

REMOTE POOL SIZE

The remote pool size depends on the configuration of pool set file on remote node. The remote pool size is a sum of sizes of all part files decreased by 4096 bytes per each part file. The 4096 bytes of each part file is utilized for storing internal metadata of the pool part files. The minimum size of the remote pool is 4096 bytes (not including required 4096 bytes per each part file).

LIBRARY API VERSIONING

This section describes how the library API is versioned, allowing applications to work with an evolving API.

const char *rpmem_check_version(
	unsigned major_required,
	unsigned minor_required);

The rpmem_check_version() function is used to see if the installed librpmem supports the version of the library API required by an application. The easiest way to do this is for the application to supply the compile-time version information, supplied by defines in <librpmem.h>, like this:

reason = rpmem_check_version(RPMEM_MAJOR_VERSION,
                             RPMEM_MINOR_VERSION);
if (reason != NULL) {
	/* version check failed, reason string tells you why */
}

Any mismatch in the major version number is considered a failure, but a library with a newer minor version number will pass this check since increasing minor versions imply backwards compatibility.

An application can also check specifically for the existence of an interface by checking for the version where that interface was introduced. These versions are documented in this man page as follows: unless otherwise specified, all interfaces described here are available in version 1.0 of the library. Interfaces added after version 1.0 will contain the text introduced in version x.y in the section of this manual describing the feature.

When the version check performed by rpmem_check_version() is successful, the return value is NULL. Otherwise the return value is a static string describing the reason for failing the version check. The string returned by rpmem_check_version() must not be modified or freed.

DEBUGGING AND ERROR HANDLING

Two versions of librpmem are typically available on a development system. The normal version, accessed when a program is linked using the -lrpmem option, is optimized for performance. That version skips checks that impact performance and never logs any trace information or performs any run-time assertions. If an error is detected during the call to librpmem function, an application may retrieve an error message describing the reason of failure using the following function:

const char *rpmem_errormsg(void);

The rpmem_errormsg() function returns a pointer to a static buffer containing the last error message logged for current thread. The error message may include description of the corresponding error code (if errno was set), as returned by strerror(3). The error message buffer is thread-local; errors encountered in one thread do not affect its value in other threads. The buffer is never cleared by any library function; its content is significant only when the return value of the immediately preceding call to librpmem function indicated an error, or if errno was set. The application must not modify or free the error message string, but it may be modified by subsequent calls to other library functions.

A second version of librpmem, accessed when a program uses the libraries under /usr/lib/nvml_debug, contains run-time assertions and trace points. The typical way to access the debug version is to set the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH to /usr/lib/nvml_debug or /usr/lib64/nvml_debug depending on where the debug libraries are installed on the system. The trace points in the debug version of the library are enabled using the environment variable RPMEM_LOG_LEVEL, which can be set to the following values:

The environment variable RPMEM_LOG_FILE specifies a file name where all logging information should be written. If the last character in the name is “-“, the PID of the current process will be appended to the file name when the log file is created. If RPMEM_LOG_FILE is not set, the logging output goes to stderr.

Setting the environment variable RPMEM_LOG_LEVEL has no effect on the non-debug version of librpmem.

ENVIRONMENT

librpmem can change its default behavior based on the following environment variables. These are largely intended for testing and are not normally required.

Setting this environment variable makes it possible to override the default command executed on remote node using ssh. Setting this variable shall not be required normally, but it can be used for testing and debugging purposes.

RPMEM_CMD can contain multiple commands separated by vertical bar (|). Each consecutive command is executed on remote node in order read from a pool set file. This environment variable is read when library is initialized so RPMEM_CMD must be set prior to application launch or prior to dlopen(3) of librpmem in case of using dynamic linking loader.

Setting this environment variable makes it possible to override the default ssh client command name. Setting this variable shall not be required normally.

Setting this variable to 1 enables using fi_sockets(7) provider for in-band RDMA connection. By default the sockets provider is disabled.

Setting this variable to 0 disables using fi_verbs(7) provider for in-band RDMA connection. The verbs provider is enabled by default.

EXAMPLE

The following example uses librpmem to create a remote pool on given target node identified by given pool set name. The associated local memory pool is zeroed and the data is made persistent on remote node. Upon success the remote pool is closed.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>

#include <librpmem.h>

#define POOL_SIZE    (32 * 1024 * 1024)
#define NLANES        4
unsigned char pool[POOL_SIZE];

int
main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	int ret;
	unsigned nlanes = NLANES;

	/* fill pool_attributes */
	struct rpmem_pool_attr pool_attr;
	memset(&pool_attr, 0, sizeof(pool_attr));

	/* create a remote pool */
	RPMEMpool *rpp = rpmem_create("localhost", "pool.set",
			pool, POOL_SIZE, &nlanes, &pool_attr);
	if (!rpp) {
		fprintf(stderr, "rpmem_create: %s\n", rpmem_errormsg());
		return 1;
	}

	/* store data on local pool */
	memset(pool, 0, POOL_SIZE);

	/* make local data persistent on remote node */
	ret = rpmem_persist(rpp, 0, POOL_SIZE, 0);
	if (ret) {
		fprintf(stderr, "rpmem_persist: %s\n", rpmem_errormsg());
		return 1;
	}

	/* close the remote pool */
	ret = rpmem_close(rpp);
	if (ret) {
		fprintf(stderr, "rpmem_close: %s\n", rpmem_errormsg());
		return 1;
	}

	return 0;
}

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

librpmem builds on the persistent memory programming model recommended by the SNIA NVM Programming Technical Work Group: http://snia.org/nvmp

SEE ALSO

libpmemobj(3), libpmemblk(3), libpmemlog(3), libpmem(3), strerror(3) and http://pmem.io